Security of Information


The research paper below explores the acts, guidelines, and strategies that ensure security of information kept in centralized IT structures. The study further looks into the subject of Privacy Impact Assessments and how they are exploited by the national government and members of society. Finally, the paper discusses some preeminent practices in confidentiality and safety of data.

Keywords: information/data, individual, privacy, state.


Data safety is essentially the act of shielding material and data systems from unlawful usage, release, interference, alteration, or damage (Jacob, 1999). Data safety is supposed to offer reliability, discretion, and readiness. Uprightness involves protecting against inappropriate data alteration or damage and guarantees non-repudiation and genuineness of facts (OMB Memorandum, 2007). Privacy involves conserving approved constraints on contact and revelation, comprising approaches for guarding individual confidentiality and exclusive data (Jacob, 1999). Readiness means guaranteeing apt and dependable access to and usage of data (Thomas, 2002).

Legal requirements for protecting personal information stored in federal IT systems include the requirement for the national agency to conduct privacy effect valuations for automated data structures and assortments. The condition involves making them openly accessible. The PIA (Privacy Impact Assessment) gets carried out to guarantee management adheres to appropriate lawful, supervisory, and strategic requirements concerning confidentiality (Thomas, 2002).

The agency is also mandated to post confidentiality strategies on organization websites used by the public. The law requires the agency to interpret discretion policies into an even machine-readable layout. Interpretation will uphold simplicity for the public (Jacob, 1999).

Individually discernible data and reserved information represent any data about someone preserved by an organization. In the course of shielding information and preserving secrecy sustained by the state organization, the central administration has proven discretion acts. The confidentiality laws necessitate national IT administrators to safeguard the choice of the party whose facts are handled and deposited in the central IT structure as discussed (GAO,2008).

The Privacy Act of 1974 requires national IT administrators to defend the material enshrined in a structure of Archives conserved by a state agency (GAO, 2008). The recording scheme involves clustered records comprising individual data accounts retrievable by distinct identifier. People appreciate the opportunity presented by the act that allows them to study the procedure related to their data collection, preservation, usage, and distribution by the state administration. Persons whose facts are managed and kept in the national IT schemes therefore benefit from discretion presented by the act.

In improving the safety of individual information in administration data systems, the E-Government Act of 2002 necessitates that IT supervisors in organizations conduct affect valuations. Discretion effects assessments represent a scrutiny in the procedures relating to gathering, storage, distribution, and organization of individual facts in a data system (GAO, 2008). The provision has enabled several valuations that offer thorough scrutiny of individually distinguishable data security in mechanical systems.

The Paperwork Reduction Act 1980 comprises confidentiality and security rules by setting confines in requirements regulating person's data assortment. Although the Act's principal aim is to reduce bookkeeping load on individuals, it also serves the purpose of protecting confidentiality (GAO, 2008).

The Office of Management and Budget (OMB) guarantees and monitors IT supervisors and state agencies implementing the PIA obligation and the Privacy Act. OMB has also issued application procedures and carries on contributing auxiliary supervision to discretion and security (GAO, 2008).

Privacy Impacts Assessments Components and Their Use

Collection Component

PIA comprises the process of gathering of individually distinguishable data, its usage, distribution, and preservation. The data collection component is vital to both the national government and society members. PIA defines what data is to be collected and the sources. The PIA also covers the motives why the data is being collected and the equipment to be used in data gathering (Thomas, 2002). Also, it seeks to unearth whether the individual identifier recovers the data. By examining this component of the PIA, the state administration and members of society can decide on the correct confidentiality ways to avert the breach of files in the system.

Usage Component

A PIA comprises data traits that seek to describe the uses of data (Thomas, 2002). By examining data qualities, the national government and society members can detect earlier unknown regions of note, alarm, and outline. The features component enables the administration to introduce a plan to ensure data collected from individuals or the system get tested for precision.

Sharing Component

The sharing part of PIA defines whether data allotment in any association is internal or external (OMB Memorandum, 2007). This factor assists the national government in examining how data is conveyed or revealed to the in-house or external establishments. The government campaigns for sharing are envisioned to safeguard security.

Access Component

The access component of PIA guarantees that notice is delivered to the concerned persons prior to data assortment. This component is used by the members of society who agree or decline to offer information (OMB Memorandum, 2007). The data access component of PIA warrants that the information preservation program in any system gets proven. The components get used to recognize any discretion dangers prior to adequately presenting room for an alternative (Thomas, 2002).The component of information security analyzes how the information safety will be handled.

Best Commended Practices in Data Confidentiality

Security awareness guarantees that workers are aware of the significance of protecting delicate information. Safety awareness program ensures the personnel are mindful of the importance of guarding data. The awareness program also prescribes how data should be controlled securely and hazards of mishandling information (Gordon & Loeb, 2002).

Discretion has also emerged as the best practice in safeguarding privacy. The practice endorses that data is not made accessible or revealed to unapproved persons, bodies or procedures.

Integrity in information safety signifies upholding and guaranteeing the correctness and wholeness of material. Uprightness guarantees that information cannot be altered in an illegal or unnoticeable method (Gordon & Loeb, 2002).

Data readiness is accessibility that involves proper work of storage and access channels, as well as safety wheels at all intervals in order to safeguard confidentiality. High readiness schemes remain obtainable at all times averting service disturbances. This uniformity ensures data confidentiality.

Access control guarantees that being privy to secure material is limited to individuals who are sanctioned to obtain the evidence (Gordon & Loeb, 2002). Access gets allowed with the documentation, verification, and approval that ensure confidentiality of data.

Cryptography use is a practice commanded to change usable material into an unfeasible form to everybody other than an approved handler. The practice shields data from prohibited users or leaks (Gordon & Loeb, 2002).


In conclusion, confidentiality of data is a vital factor enabled by regulations, guidelines, and strategies that ensure protection. The input of Privacy Impacts Assessments in compelling public view is also commendable. With progress in knowledge, best practices have emerged which provide the privacy of information at all times, whether in a fixed position or in transit.

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