The main purpose of art is to create and raise personal ability in self-connection to the world. No culture can exist without any constructive approach to life. The art is developed through a great amount of crisis. That fact provided the full sense of different art conceptions and transformations.
If to talk about Neoclassicism, it is necessary to dwell upon such a famous French painter as Jacques-Louis David. He performed great during the French Revolution (1789-1799) and had a close association with the Committee of Public Safety. David admired Napoleon from their first meeting. General Bonaparte entrusted him with many governmental affairs.
Neoclassicism continued throughout the 19th and 20th centuries. It came after the Baroque style and turned over the whole painting world. All splendors were substituted for severe lines and forms. Neoclassicism brought symmetry and reflection. It cut down the luxuries both in painting and public life. The extra power of the Catholic Church became limited, and its glorification vanished. Reformatory movement penetrated the Christian Church and provided current trends.
In 1812, David painted Emperor Napoleon in His Study at the Tuileries. This politically formed artwork demonstrates the leading tendencies in that period. The detailed drawing came to his head. The paintings were worked over diligently. Older masters had flights of their thoughts in works. Neoclassicism indicated only dry and firm lines or forms. Napoleon was represented in quite a portrait style, without imaginary heroism. His clothes completely responded to that era, and he is more realistic.
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Impressionism as the art movement acting in the 19th century is opposite to Neoclassicism. It paid no attention to the details. The main objective was in producing colors, shadows, and light. Impressionists denied realism.
A French artist Pierre-Auguste Renoir created the Luncheon of the Boating Party (1880-1881). In terms of this painting, it can be found out the uncompromising desire to emphasize the importance of universal union between people and the environment. Renoir caught the momentary state of nature. People are organic in this state. Figures have no strict shape. They just dissolve in the air. All the colors are local. If an observer sees the green color in Neoclassicism, that means only green color cast. Impressionism demonstrated that the green color varies from bright to dark, from clear to mixed, from light to heavy. Merging of paints has no restriction. It is the free-flight state.
Abstract Expressionism developed in the 1940s. It is a postwar art movement. Wartime was greatly introduced in this movement.
In the Autumn Rhythm (Number 30) painted by Jackson Pollock in 1950, the upper responsibility of that era is shown. Expressionists tried to reproduce the emotional state which prevailed over realism. That is a common feature of Impressionism. It is even more distant from Neoclassicism, and it is a realistic reflection of the environment. The main aim is to demonstrate the expression and mood of the inner life. Individual psychology controls Expressionism. The given painting indicates how people overcome the autumn state. Drastic lines and forms convince us of the expressive break between autumn and summer. Some impressions of fear and danger, ragged soul, dirt and disgust, depression and chaos come across different perceptions.
It is only the art that can so easily rule over the main human feelings and emotions. Various art movements prescribe the new wave in cultural education and social life.