Principles of Management



Type of Leadership Style Mr. Varun's Possess

Mr. Varun has several leadership qualities that can be used to determine his style of leadership. These qualities are of great significance to influence the people he will be going to lead. Mr. Varun is a sincere, hardworking, reliable, and honest engineer. These are the personal traits of each leader. They could be considered only the least requirements for the post of the General Manager. According to recent theories suggested in the 20th century, leadership is more sophisticated and cannot be dependent on few important traits of individuals. According to Brooks (2006), a set of traits or one of such traits does not make an individual an extraordinary leader. The leadership qualities of Mr. Varun include foresightedness and technical sound. According to Fitzgerald and Van Eijnatten (2002), leadership qualities, unlike personal traits can make an individual an extraordinary leader. Mr. Varun has been capable of handling employees’ grievances, which implies that he is a problem solver. The fact that he has good relationships with other employees implies that Mr. Varun is a good communicator.

With such leadership qualities and traits, Mr. Varun can practice a combination of leadership styles to influence the people he leads. He practices affiliative leadership and democratic leadership depending on the situation. According to Fitzgerald and Van Eijnatten (2002), affiliative leadership is a form of leadership in which the leader is focused on establishing positive relationships to motivate his/her followers. Since followers in affiliative leadership follow their leader, they are likely to be loyal, share information, and have trust. According to Fitzgerald and Van Eijnatten (2002), and affiliative leader provides positive feedback, which helps in keeping everyone on course. An affiliative leader should have the gift of speaking on an extremely commanding emotional level and, maybe, include certain personal traits (Kaplan & Norton, 2008). From the case, it is evident that Mr. Varun has created a rapport with employees beyond the workplaces. The families of employees often consult his wife, and therefore, he has some personal influence on these families. The fact that he goes by the rule of law when in difficulty implies that he is a democratic leader.

Type of Leadership Style Mr. Avinash

Mr. Avinash possesses several leadership qualities and personality traits. Mr. Avinash is extremely prudent. He considers all the possible alternatives before he makes any decision. Besides, he assesses all the pros and cons of the problem at hand before taking the next step. It implies that he is analytical. Mr. Avinash is also professional and keeps the sales team on their toes and makes sure that the monthly sales target is achieved. Thus, it can be concluded that he is goal-oriented. The fact that he can bend if it is necessary implies that Mr. Avinash is flexible in making decisions. It very important for a leader since it allows him to consider the points of view of other employees and reverse earlier decisions. Other important leadership qualities possessed by Mr. Avinash include good communication skills and vision. The profession of a salesperson requires one to be capable of seizing the market opportunities as they unfold. Mr. Avinash, unlike Mr. Varun, is not affiliative since he maintains some distance from employees. He is not interested in the family lives of his employees.

Based on these leadership qualities and practices, it is justifiable to claim that Mr. Avinash practices transformational leadership. According to Walumbwa and Lawler (2003), the transformational style of leadership relies on high levels of communication from management to meet the goals. From the case, it is evident that Mr. Avinash follows a daily schedule and implements management instructions in letter and spirit. Besides, Mr. Avinash is considered a management man. It should be noted that transformational leaders motivate their followers and improve productivity through communication and high visibility. According to the case, Mr. Avinash knows everything in the organization and has good communication skills. However, this style of leadership requires the involvement of management to meet the set goals. Such leaders focus on the whole situation. They delegate smaller tasks to the team to accomplish the set goals.

As a transformational leader, Mr. Avinash’s personality allows him to draw on the assorted abilities and approaches to leadership, which results in various advantages for the organization. These traits allow him to set a good example and communicate clearly the goals of the organization to his followers. According to Waugh and Streib (2006), a transformational leader is also capable of inspiring his/her followers to look beyond their own interests and concentrate on the interests of the organization.

Another advantage of Mr. Avinash’s personality relies on his ability, as a transformational leader, to retain customers and leaders. He fully engages with employees and seeks to fulfill their needs right along with the needs of the organization. It is likely to make employees feel corporate and stay with the organization.

  • As a consultant would like to meet them before you make a decision, if so why? 

 There is a need to meet both Mr. Avinash and Mr. Varun to assess them and then to select an efficient manager. The assessment will help in analyzing the ability and nature of a candidate, which might not be communicated in writing. According to Shelton and Darling (2001), there is no recruitment procedure without an interview. As a result, meeting the two candidates forms a significant step in choosing the right General Manager for the Kota Branch. Besides, the face-to-face assessment might reveal other practical details not included in their curriculum. According to Shelton and Darling (2001), interviews or pre-recruitment assessment helps in assessing the communication skills of the candidates. The oral response and personal presentation are likely to give a lasting impression concerning the capabilities of an individual as a leader. The attitude and mind of the two candidates can only be assessed through such interviews. Meeting Mr. Avinash and Mr. Varun is also likely to justify the expectations conveyed by their qualifications and work experiences. As such, meeting the candidates is extremely significant to assist in selecting the right candidate for the organization.

  • Who is your Choice as a GM of Cool Products, Kota? Give reasons for your choice.

From a personal standpoint, Mr. Avinash is a suitable candidate to hold the position of the General Manager of Cool Product, Kota. As a new branch, the management of Kota should be placed in the hands of an individual who can implement different management instructions to achieve the goals. As a transformational leader, Mr. Avinash can easily implement various management instructions, thus achieving the set goals. Since Mr. Varun focuses on establishing relationships with employees, it would be wrong to entrust him with the management of Kota. This is because the affiliative leadership practiced by Mr. Varun has one downside of tolerating poor performance out of loyalty.

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Henry Mintzberg Contributed Greatly to the Discipline of Management

The manager fulfills several roles every day. For instance, the manager might prepare and negotiate new contracts, resolve conflicts, represent the organization, and approve various requests. In other words, managers are constantly switching responsibilities, expectations, and situations. Professor Mintzberg recognized various roles of management and argued about ten major roles that can be used to categorize various functions of management. The ten management roles discussed by Henry Mintzberg include figurehead, leader, monitor, spokesperson, liaison, disseminator, negotiator, resource allocator, entrepreneur, and disturbance handler. These ten roles are then categorized into three classes: interpersonal, informational, and decisional.

Interpersonal roles. According to Mintzberg, this role involves dealing with individuals both inside and outside the company. Within this managerial role, there are three different interpersonal roles, such as leader, figurehead, and liaison. Concerning the figurehead, the manager is the figurehead of the company. He/she represents it both inside and outside the workplace. As the manager, one is expected to perform the legal, social, and ceremonial roles. The manager is supposed to be an inspirational source. Employees look at the manager as an individual who has authority. Regarding the liaison role, the manager must communicate between both internal and external contacts. Walumbwa and Lawler (2003) argued that the manager plays the role of the liaison between the subordinates and management. Besides, the manager is the channel between employees and upper management, who are within the organization, and customers, who are outside it. As a leader, the manager is expected to offer leadership to employees. The manager should monitor the responsibilities and performance of every employee.

Informational roles. This role involves collecting, sharing, and interpreting information both outside and inside the organization. As the facilitator among various stakeholder groups, the manager should guarantee sharing of information in a timely way. Besides, the information must not be misunderstood as it moves through the channels of communication. The three informational roles include monitoring, disseminating, and spokesperson. Regarding monitoring, the manager constantly seeks the information linked to the organization and industry. The main objective is to look for the relevant changes in the environment. Concerning dissemination, the manager communicates possibly useful information to employees and other colleagues. Regarding the role of spokesperson, the manager speaks for the organization. When undertaking this role, the manager is responsible for transmitting the information concerning the organization and its goals to the outside world.

Decisional roles. The manager plays a crucial role in making decisions for the organization. As a result, he/she must comprehend how his/her decisions affect the workplace. According to Kaplan and Norton (2008), making decisions is necessary for the stability, growth, and future of any organization. Morrison (2003) argued that a decisional role implies that the manager must also comprehend how his/her decisions affect customers, neighboring businesses, employees, and competitors. Although the manager must be capable of making decisions quickly, he/she must also exhibit detailed analysis, careful considerations, and thought processes (Kaplan & Norton, 2008). The various roles categorized as decisional include entrepreneur, resource allocator, negotiator, and disturbance handler. As an entrepreneur, the manager must create and control any changes within the organization or department. This implies solving problems and generating new ideas, as well as implementing these ideas. As a disturbance handler, the manager should solve various conflicts and take charge when there are different problems. As a resource allocator, the manager must determine where to apply resources in an optimum manner. This involves allotting finance, as well as assigning the staff and other organizational resources. As a negotiator, the manager must direct and participate in the important negotiations within the organization (Brooks, 2006).

According to Henry Mintzberg, the roles played by managers within the organization differ significantly based on the management level. For instance, upper-level management is likely to play different interpersonal roles, such as figurehead.

The Theories of Leadership are Relevant in Contemporary Businesses

Trait Leadership Theory. According to Fitzgerald and Van Eijnatten (2002), a trait refers to the personal characteristics that reflect a range of individual variations and nurture the consistent effectiveness of a leader across several organizational situations. According to the following theory, a group of heritable characteristics differentiates the leaders from the non-leaders. The effectiveness of the leader refers to the degree of influence that he/she has on the group’s performance and satisfaction. Several scholars have suggested that leadership is a unique status that is inherent only to a selected group of individuals. Trait theorists, such as Upton, Teal, and Felan (2001), have claimed that these traits are immutable and cannot be developed. Regardless of this perspective being immensely criticized over the past century, scholars have been studying the impacts of personality traits on the effectiveness of leaders. Studies have indicated that a successful leader differs from others and that he/she possesses specific personality traits that substantially contribute to his/her effectiveness. Comprehending the significance of these core personality traits that foretell the effectiveness of leadership can assist organizations in selecting leaders (Waugh & Streib, 2006). This theory has been related to the claim that “leaders are born and not made.” The leadership style associated with this theory is the charismatic style of leadership. In charismatic leadership, leadership is based on the ability of the leader to behave and converse in ways that make followers move in the right direction (Waugh & Streib, 2006). The leader should have the gift of commanding his/her followers. The traits theory can explain the leadership of most political organizations. For instance, Nelson Mandela is one of the examples of a charismatic leader.

Situational Theories of Leadership. This theory argues that times influence the effectiveness of the leader. It assumes that different situations call for different characteristics. Situational theorists state that there is no single optimal psychographic blueprint of a leader. Situational theories maintain that what the leader does is significantly reliant on the certain characteristics of the situation in which he/she functions. According to Brooks (2006), it is up to the leader to change his or her leadership style and not the follower of the leader’s style. Based on the situation, the style of leadership might change continuously to meet the needs of all the people in the organization. The pioneers of this theory, Paul Hersey and Ken Blanchard categorized the leadership styles into four types of behaviors that include: telling, directing, selling, and coaching. In the telling, the leader makes all the decisions and informs others in the organization concerning these decisions. This form of leadership might also be referred to as micro-management because the leader is extremely involved in supervising all the employees’ activities closely. In selling, the leader is also involved in the daily supervision of activities. The leader also makes decisions; though, the employees’ views are also considered. Various leadership styles associated with this leadership theory include democratic and autocratic leadership styles.

  • Discuss one control measure used by each functional manager within the typical organization. Give the reason why you think each is a control measure

In management, control measures help in checking the errors to take corrective action. This helps in minimizing deviations from the standards and achieving the stated goals of the organization. Every functional head has its control measure. The first control measure is direct supervision. Observation and supervision are the oldest methods of controlling. The manager observes the employees and their work. According to Kaplan & Norton (2008), supervision brings the manager in direct contact with his/her employees. As a result, several problems are solved during the process of supervision. This controlling measure applies to a small-sized department.

The second control measure in a typical financial department is financial statements. The heads of the finance department can use such financial documents as profit and loss accounts, balance sheets, and trial balances (Walumbwa & Lawler, 2003). All organizations prepare the profit and loss account, which provides a summary of the expenses and income for a specified period. The balance sheet shows the financial position of the organization. These documents are used to control the organizations to reach the set goals. The figures for the present year can be compared with those of the previous years. Besides, the figures can also be compared to that of other organizations. Through the ration analysis, the organization can understand its liquidity, solvency, and profitability position (Fitzgerald & Van Eijnatten, 2002).

The third control measure is budgetary control. Shelton and Darling (2001) pointed out that the budget is a controlling device. According to Fitzgerald and Van Eijnatten (2002), budgetary control refers to a technique of managerial control via the budgets. Budgetary control is performed for all departments, such as production, sales, finance, and human resource.

The break-even analysis is also a control tool. Albright (2004) defined the break-even point as the point at which there is neither profit nor loss. As a control device, the break-even analysis helps in finding out the performance of the company. As a result, the company can take a collective measure to enhance its performance in the future.

Management audit is one of the significant control tools. It is used to assess management. According to Kaplan and Norton (2008), it is of great importance to assess the entire management process that includes organizing, planning, directing, and controlling. The main objective of performing a management audit is to find out the effectiveness of management. To assess the effectiveness of t management, plans, policies, objectives, personnel relations, procedures, and systems of control of the company are assessed extremely carefully. A team of experts collects the data from the records, clients, management stakeholders, and employees. They analyze this data and conclude the effectiveness and performance of management (Kaplan & Norton, 2008).

Self-control is also one of the common control tools. When using this tool, employees are given the freedom to set their targets, assess their performance, and take corrective measures (Fitzgerald & Van Eijnatten, 2002). This form of control is particularly required for the top management positions because they despise external control. The subordinates are encouraged to utilize self-control because constant control from top management can be demoralizing.

Effective Communication Leads to Effective Performance of Managerial Functions 

The term “communication” has a complex and rich history. It originated from the Latin word “communicate” which means “to make common.” According to Kim (2002), communication is the transmission of meanings and information from one party to another through the use of common symbols. It is well recognized that communication plays an integrating role in managing any organizational function, such as organizing, planning, staffing, controlling, or leading. Walumbwa and Lawler (2003) defined communication as the interaction in which the sender sends a message to the receiver who decodes the message upon receiving it and gives feedback.

Communication is one of the key tools of management that is used to manage the entire organization as a whole. Morrison (2003) pointed out that the effectiveness of the organization relies on the manager’s capability to listen and read, as well as his or her ability to speak and write. Unluckily, the significance of communication has not been well recognized in business. It is a common belief that anyone with common sense can write and communicate. Most managers write to impress, but not to express themselves. Effective communication is an essential aspect of managerial effectiveness and job performance. Communication is a necessary component of management to any organization (Fitzgerald & Van Eijnatten, 2002). Whether the purpose of communication is to notify the employees of new policies, effective communication is a vital issue inefficient management.

Management is essentially concerned with the direction and control of the organization. It involves the direction and planning of work. These managerial functions require effective communication (Fitzgerald & Van Eijnatten, 2002). Every manager requires skills to convey his/her thinking to the people he/she leads and to find out what employees do.

  •  You have been offered a job as a Marketing Manager with Eco Bank Ghana Limited. The CEO has notified you that the school needs to brand itself. As the Marketing Manager, you must assess the environmental effects on the company’s performance. Explain the importance of conducting SWOT and Macro organizational feasibility study

SWOT analysis refers to a structured method of planning used for assessing Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and Threats (SWOT) involved in a business venture or product. Management tries to identify the external and internal factors affecting the future performance of the organization by conducting a SWOT analysis (Albright, 2004). The external environmental factors include opportunities and threats, whereas the internal environmental factors include strengths and weaknesses. According to Upton, Teal, and Felan (2001), the SWOT matrix is carried out as part of the overall planning process in which the operational and financial objectives are established for the upcoming year, and strategies are set to fulfill these objectives. Performing a SWOT analysis has several advantages.

A SWOT analysis allows the organization to allot all its resources effectively. Each organization has a limited supply of labor, capital, and production capacity (Fitzgerald & Van Eijnatten, 2002). An assessment of the strengths allows the company to determine how these resources will be allotted to guarantee the highest possible revenue growth and profitability. By performing the analysis of the strengths, Eco Bank Ghana can identify where it can compete most efficiently.

A SWOT analysis improves operations. An assessment of the organization’s weaknesses can identify the most crucial parts that require improvement for the business to regain its competitive strategies. According to Albright (2004), a realistic assessment of the organization’s weakness also prevents various strategic mistakes, such as investing in the market with poor quality products. Continuous enhancement in all areas of the organization’s operations is a significant aspect of coping with competitors. The identified weaknesses should be transformed into the organization’s future strengths (Fitzgerald & Van Eijnatten, 2002).

Conducting a SWOT analysis is likely to reveal new opportunities for exploitation. Business growth requires searching for opportunities, as well as broader product distribution, including new potential customers and developing new products and services. The management team that conducts the analysis identifies the emerging opportunities to be exploited by the organization. It also tries to forecast other long-term opportunities (Albright, 2004).

A SWOT analysis is useful for a competitive position. Several organizations perform the SWOT matrix on the major rivals. After having obtained the relevant information from the SWOT analysis of the company, the management team begins to position itself in the industry (Fitzgerald & Van Eijnatten, 2002). A competitive position can assist the organization in determining and comparing the weaknesses of its competitors with its strength. A SWOT analysis can reveal the weakness of even the most powerful competitor.

The SWOT matrix could help Eco Bank Ghana to deal with risks. Threats in the SWOT matrix could hurt its performance. Organizations experience several threats beyond those caused by direct competition. Changes introduced into the regulatory environment can negatively affect performance. The tastes and preferences of consumers can change suddenly because of recession (Fitzgerald & Van Eijnatten, 2002).

Planning is a Major Management Function

The planning process integrates all the aspects of planning into a unified and coherent process. When the manager follows the planning process, he/she ensures that the plans are well-focused, practical, cost-effective, and flexible (Fitzgerald & Van Eijnatten, 2002). The planning process comprises eight steps.

  • The first step is the analysis of the available opportunities. The best approach to analyze the opportunities is to examine the present position of the organization, as well as analyze how this position could be improved. According to Albright (2004), the organization can analyze its opportunities by conducting a SWOT analysis and risk analysis and then comprehend the pressures for change. A SWOT analysis reveals the environmental factors that affect the business. These factors should be considered in the plan. Performing the risk analysis allows identifying the risks associated with the plan, as well as the weaknesses in the operation. As a result, it is possible to neutralize or reduce some risks before the execution of the plan (Shelton & Darling, 2001). The present position can also be determined by understanding the pressures for change. According to Albright (2004), clients or employees might ask about change, or the environment might change. Pressures are likely to emanate from the new laws, economy, new technologies, and competition among others.
  • The second step is the identification of the aim of the plan. This step involves deciding accurately the aim of the plan (Walumbwa & Lawler, 2003). Defining and deciding the plan aim assists in avoiding wasting efforts on the irrelevant issues. The organization can identify the aim of the plan by asking questions, such as: “What does the organization should be in the future? What returns does the organization expect? What standard does the organization aim at?” This step can be presented as a mission or vision statement. The mission statement offers tangible expression to the vision statement by explaining how to achieve it (Upton, Teal, & Felan, 2001).
  • The third step is the determination of the alternatives. At this planning stage, the planning team uses various creativity tools to generate a wide range of options. Albright (2004) pointed out that it is important to spend some time reviewing several alternatives. However, it is often tempting to choose the first idea that comes to mind. By reviewing as many alternatives as possible, it is possible to come up with a less obvious, but perfect solution (Albright, 2004).
  • The fourth step is the selection of the best alternative. This stage involves deciding the best alternative plan, if there is any, to use. It is important to evaluate all possible options before settling on the optimal one (Albright, 2004). However, there is a challenge of the limited time and resources. If there are adequate time and resources, one can determine all the options by carrying out detailed planning, costing, and risk evaluation. The two significant tools for selecting the best alternative are the Decision Trees and the Decision Matrix Analysis (Fitzgerald & Van Eijnatten, 2002). The Decision Trees help the planner to think through the possible outcome of selecting various courses of action. On the other hand, the Decision Matrix Analysis assists in deciding between various options where the planner needs to consider different factors.
  • The fifth step is detailed planning. According to Albright (2004), detailed planning refers to a process of coming up with the most efficient and effective way of attaining the objectives of the plan. This process aims at determining various functions and individuals who will accomplish them within a specific time (Upton, Teal, & Felan, 2001). Detailed planning requires the use of the Critical Path Analysis and Gantt charts. Whereas the manager focuses on the functions that need to be performed, it is important to consider the control measures to monitor performance. These include the functions related to cost control, quality assurance, and reporting among others (Upton, Teal, & Felan, 2001). A perfect plan states the present situation; has a clear aim; illustrates the functions to be carried out; identifies the risks; and considers conventional arrangements. These are the characteristics of a good plan.
  • The sixth step is the assessment of the plan and its effect. The manager reviews the worked-out plan to decide on its implementation. In this case, the manager must be objective (Upton, Teal, & Felan, 2001). It is not guaranteed that the plan is worth implementation despite reaching this stage. Assessing the plan allows the manager to interrogate other options that might be more successful. Based on the circumstances or situations, various techniques, such as Plus/Minus/Interesting (PMI), force field analysis, cost/benefit analysis, and cash flow forecasts can be used to assess the plan (Upton, Teal, & Felan, 2001). The PMI technique evaluates all the pros and cons of the plan. The cost/benefit analysis is applied to assess whether the plan has financial significance. Like PMI, the force field analysis allows the manager to get an overall view of the force against and for the plan. At this stage, if the analysis indicates that the plan will not bring adequate benefits, the manager can either abandon the process or return to the previous stage in the planning cycle (Upton, Teal, & Felan, 2001).
  • The seventh step is the implementation of change. Once the change has been determined that the plan is worth implementing, the manager puts it into practice (Upton, Teal, & Felan, 2001). The plan should explain various control measures that will be used to monitor the plan's execution.
  • The last step is the closing of the plan. At this stage, the manager closes the project by assessing the project to see whether there are important lessons learned. The figure below summarizes the steps involved in developing a managerial plan (Upton, Teal, & Felan, 2001).

Briefly Discuss

Henry Fayol developed the 14 principles of management in 1916. Nowadays, there is an extremely long list of management principles (Morrison, 2003). Besides, it is not possible to give an exhaustive list of these management principles. The 14 principles of management include division of work, authority, discipline, unity of direction, unity of command, the subordination of personal interests to the general interest, remuneration, centralization, scalar chain, order, equity, initiative, the stability of tenure of personnel, and Esprit de Corps (Shelton & Darling, 2001). Although the 14 principles are not widely utilized today, they can offer guidance for the present managers. According to Fitzgerald and Van Eijnatten (2002), most of these principles are considered common sense. It should be noted that the organization does not have to apply all of them. For instance, the five principles applied by Coca-Cola Company include division of work, discipline, unity of direction, initiative, and Esprit de Corps (Upton, Teal, & Felan, 2001).

The principle of division of work is concerned with specialization. According to this principle, specialization increases the employees’ output by making them more efficient (Fitzgerald & Van Eijnatten, 2002). Coco-Cola Company practices the principle of division of work because its employees are organized into departments, which match their expertise and abilities. This ensures that employees produce the most effective and efficient services and products. It is recommended that individuals with special abilities or talent be placed at the appropriate department to maximize their skills and abilities for the benefit of the company (Walumbwa & Lawler, 2003). Coca-Cola Company has several functional departments, such as finance and administration, marketing, human resources, and Information Technology (IT). These departments have subordinates and managers possessing the relevant expertise required for each specific form of the department (Shelton & Darling, 2001). Since every department has a manager and his/her supporting subordinates, tasks are broken down into simple and well-defined routines. For instance, the company is known globally for producing soft drinks of high quality (Upton, Teal, & Felan, 2001). This implies that the outcome is frequently outstanding when the right individuals hold the right positions.

The principle of discipline is concerned about employees’ obedience and respect. At Coca-Cola, like in other known companies, employees respect and obey the rules governing the organization. According to Upton, Teal, and Felan (2001), good discipline is the outcome of efficient leadership. When there is a discipline within the organization, there is a clear understanding between employees and management concerning the rules, as well as the judicious deployment of penalties for the infractions of the set rules (Upton, Teal, & Felan, 2001). Coca-Cola Company has been using the following management principle in its administrative management since its positive reputation and the high quality of its services and products are adequate to prove it. Coca-Cola has effective and efficient employees led by great leaders who move forward towards the vision of the company and execute their tasks by obeying its set values. Coca-Cola is a company based on its aspirations and values (Fitzgerald & Van Eijnatten, 2002). Therefore, all workers are seasoned and groomed to adhere to the set goals. For any organization to be capable of becoming accomplished, a disciple is of great importance. Coca-Cola has good control of employees’ conduct. Coca-Cola Company is a good example of how an organization practicing good discipline can attain success (Fitzgerald & Van Eijnatten, 2002).

The principle of unity of direction requires a single manager and the use of a single plan to direct organizational activities having a similar objective. Kaplan and Norton (2008) considered that this management principle is practiced by Coca-Cola. Every department at Coca-Cola is led by its manager and subordinate who develop their specific goals and objectives. The principle of unity of direction is extremely important in each organization since it allows employees to perform at their best if one superior leads them (Kaplan & Norton, 2008). At Coca-Cola, every functional department has its own objectives and goals. These goals are a stepping-stone towards the achievement of the common goal of the entire organization.

Under the principle of the initiative, the management allows employees to suggest new experiences, ideas, and convenient work methods (Kim, 2002). All employees of Coca-Cola have a clearly superior figure from which to seek advice, as well as whom to report. According to Walumbwa and Lawler (2003), the level at which employees suggest the new idea is high but well regulated. All workers must be offered the opportunity to generate innovative ideas. However, not all the ideas generated by employees would be beneficial to the organization. The main aspects are to allow the employees to offer their creative ideas and to make them not feel afraid to share their ideas and opinions. Coca-Cola has been using the management principle of initiative (Kaplan & Norton, 2008). As a result, the company is recognized as one of the global brands.

Under the Esprit de Corps principle, management promotes team spirit and builds harmony and unity within the organization. This principle of management has been evident at Coca-Cola Company. According to Fitzgerald and Van Eijnatten (2002), due to harmony and unity within the organization, Coca-Cola has reached a huge success and has become a global brand. Despite the company being organized into departments, there are unity and harmony amongst employees and management (Fitzgerald & Van Eijnatten, 2002). From a person’s standpoint, team spirit, harmony, and unity are great motivations. According to Fitzgerald and Van Eijnatten (2002), any company needs to promote team spirit to guarantee a robust foundation and future success for the organization.

  • For any manager to be effective in the deliberation of his/her duties, he/she requires to possess certain skills. Explain five such skills in detail

To be successful in management, it is necessary to have skills in five important areas: commercial insight, task execution, people skills, critical thinking skills, and leadership skills (Brooks, 2006). Some managers can effectively perform without one or two skills in these areas. However, most managers will have competence in all of them.

Managers are expected to oversee the execution of sophisticated tasks, manage projects, and run efficient operations. The task execution skills assist the manager in planning, organizing, and monitoring team performance. Thus, the manager needs to have a strong focus on the results of these complex tasks (Fitzgerald & Van Eijnatten, 2002). Besides, such skills allow the manager to convey a sense of urgency and persevere to get the tasks accomplished under tight pressures. This comprises pliability to bounce back because of setbacks.

The critical thinking skills assist the manager in logically approaching problems, as well as avoiding biases. Certain decisions taken by the manager have impacts on employees, organizational processes, customers, society, and competitors (Upton, Teal, & Felan, 2001). As a result, the manager must critically measure the magnitude of the effect of the decision before its execution. In such a scenario, the critical thinking skills enable the manager to reach the right conclusion even when under pressure.

Commercial insight skills emphasize efficiency and profitability or return on investment (Waugh & Streib, 2006). Effective managers use strategic thinking to make sure that they concentrate on the right tasks that are likely to add the most value. They also utilize their planning skills to prioritize activities. This implies that they are capable of comprehending the financial aspects of managing an organization and allotting the resources at their disposal prudently.

Effective managers should possess leadership skills (Albright, 2004). One cannot lead without the capacity to influence the people he or she is leading. A good leader must have motivational abilities and enjoy a certain level of control over the subordinates. Besides, these skills enable the manager to coach his or her team to become top performers and communicate goals and objectives.

Lastly, the manager must have people skills. According to Waugh and Streib (2006), being an effective manager includes having the integrity to foster emotional intelligence to deal with various people. Effective management requires good listening skills and clear communication abilities to bring the right people to work for a common goal.

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