Ethical and Social Practices Surrounding ICT
Literature Review of Social Science of Information and Communication Technology
Nowadays, information has become an important element of social science. The development of computers and information technology as a means, methods and tools of information processing has led to the fact that the term “information” is revised with regard to the means that can be used for processing (Coleman 5). Information technology had high turnover in various fields of social science, and communication technologies have become its instrument. Hackers are seeking to expand the scope of liberal traditions, making challenge of intellectual property and liberal jurisprudence. It was a liberal critique from within liberalism (Coleman 5). In the previous era, technology was considered as a simple set of formulas and was considered to be secondary to the culture. In recent decades, it has been recognized that technology improvement is the basis for the development of modern industrial civilization, and radically new forms of human culture relating to the birth of fundamentally new technologies. Therefore, information and communication technologies currently form trends in social culture, defining its ethical and social position, which is the thesis of this essay. To confirm this thesis, the paper has been divided into several sections, where the following features will be explored: three researches regarding the topic and ethical and social practices surrounding ICT.
Social Implications of Information and Communication Technologies
Kling shows that many years ago mankind had already confirmed the fact that computerization had a social aspects (Kling 2). Manuel Castells also emphasized this in his article, the theme of which is the social impact of the development of information and communication technologies (Castells 1).
If to talk about the methodology of this study, the object of the research is information and communication technology, the subject is the research trends in the development of modern information technology as the main agents of social transformation.
Methodological basis of the dissertation research contains a socio-cultural approach, according to which the information society is seen as a holistic socio-cultural formation, which has both external and internal sources of development and socio-economic changes caused by ICT. The methodology of structural-functional analysis, as well as elements of the institutional approach was applied in this research (Castells 1).
To sum up the ideas of this article, it should be said that it describes the impact of ICT on the transformation of the world, time, and space. From the informational point of view, the author notes, the world becomes more interconnected, the distance means less as it is shared by people from different cities and countries, thanks to their new-found opportunities to communicate constantly (Castells 5). Castel points out, that the seal of social time also exists; there are a growing number of socially significant events; the world of ICT is changing humanity, giving it fundamentally new solutions and opportunities in social and economic spheres, new networks, jobs with greater individualization, with the increasing importance of education (Castells 2). Practices of ICT form ethical and social position as a development (education, information, and mental growth) which is its advantage. The disadvantage is the impact of ICT practices on the position of individualism (expression electronically close affinity of mind). The author emphasizes that this creates a gap between technical and social underdevelopment of overdevelopment (Castells 1).
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Thus, the author emphasizes the fact that ICT defines ethical and social position (from the positive and negative side). The next study shows arguments concerning the topic, so it should be considered.
Social Informatics and Its Importance
Social interaction got new challenges through computer “mediated interaction” (Keating 6). Rob Kling also emphasizes that social informatics and social interaction are social aspects of “technologization” or computerization and these are the topics of his research (Kling 2).
Describing the methodology of the study, it should be said that the aspects of computerization are the object of the study, and its subject is social information as a tool for ICT culture. The methodology includes modern philosophical, social, and psychological concepts that reveal patterns of social workers’ training, the provisions of the role of information in the social process, its universal character, anticipating practice of providing an opportunity to choose the ways of human and social developments. The methodological function of the study was also implemented using a theoretical analysis of philosophical, psychological and social literature.
Summarizing the ideas of the research, Kling believes, that usable information systems affect the culture of the society (Kling 3). ICT develops jobs or careers of social workers, individualizing the society and providing such employees with customers. However, it also creates new standards of social work, and internal conditions of reforming the system of social workers and social pedagogues’ training and the need arose to build their information culture. External prerequisites are caused by labor market needs, individual, family, social and educational market. Internal prerequisites connected with the impact of ICT are the reduction of the period of study; dynamics of scientific knowledge, individualization and differentiation of education (Kling 3).
Thus, the idea of this study also confirms that ICT forms trends of the culture of the society, determining the need for socialization and creating new standards for it. Therefore, the study that characterizes the benefits of ICT should be analyzed.
The Impact of ICT on Scientific Communication
Hanson points out that any action with information has a moral responsibility (4). Furthermore, Christina Pikas expands such understanding of moral responsibility; in her article she investigates all the benefits of scientific communication from information and communication technologies, which is a topic of her work (Pikas 3). If we talk about the methodology, the object of this study is the ICT in modern society; the subject is information and communication technologies as a factor of social transformation. Activity-communication approach is used in the research to study the nature and role of ICT in modern society. Along with this, general scientific group of such formal logical methods as analysis, synthesis, induction, deduction, abstraction, systematic and structural-functional approach is also used.
Summarizing the ideas of this research, the author aims to determine the nature of the impact of ICT on social reality. ICT is an open system that can evolve, actively adapting to the circumstances of its being and acting with them. ICT performs functions such as integrative, transformative and communicative.
Increasing hardware and software compatibility of information and communication technologies contributes to their transformation in planetary scale, which is expressed in the phenomenon of global information and communication network. In the unity of its components a global network of IC in modern society ensures the production, processing, storage, and transmission of information. This factor determines the nature of people communication activities. Christina Pikas believes that “ICTs have not changed the social structure of science, but have enabled new forms of remote collaboration and productivity” (1).
Thus, information - communication technologies provide benefits to the system of modern scientific communication, determining social culture and communication.
It is necessary to consider ethical and social practices surrounding information and communications technologies in these studies.
Ethical and Social Practices Surrounding ICT
Speaking of all three studies, we can formulate ethical and social elements of culture, which in one way or another have been expressed in these studies. They are as follows:
- The use of ICT to benefit other people, society and social culture;
- The lack of interference in the use and application of ICT by other members of the social community;
- Impropriety of the use of ICT for illegal and unlawful acts;
- Respect of proprietary of information;
- Impropriety of information use: communication technologies are used for the dissemination of false information giving;
- The use of stolen technology;
- The use of ICT in case of using computer hardware or network resources without authorization or proper compensation;
- Impropriety of someone’s intellectual property and information use;
- Early consideration of possible social consequences of the use of ICT (Perron, Taylor, Glass, and Margerum-Leys 6).
Basing on the analysis of trends in the information and communication technologies development, it can be assumed that future efforts in this area should be focused on further penetration of ICT into all spheres of social life, strengthening its role in the culture of the society (Pikas 6). Over the coming years, significant progress in the development of information infrastructure, informatization of state organizations and social sciences will be made, including the development of appropriate legislation.
Modern information and communication technology has changed all social relations. A new information society is born. New technologies do not only change the ways of producing goods and services, but also create new opportunities for civil rights, self-identity, learning, educating a new generation and recreation. The information society reduces the distance. Globalization creates unprecedented opportunities for the region. ICT forms trends in social culture, determining the need for socialization and creating its new standards. Information and communication technologies create a system of benefits for the modern scientific communication and determine the culture of the society and communication. Thus, ICT forms trends in social culture, defining its ethical and social position, which confirms the thesis of this essay. Thus, the goal was achieved.